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American Merchant Seamans British escorts in vegreville. McEwen, William A excorts. QF pounder 12 cwt naval gun — The QF12 pounder 12 cwt gun was a common, versatile cegreville calibre naval gun introduced in and used until the middle of the 20th esckrts. They were also fitted as deck guns on D and E-class submarines and it was estimated that out of the 4, Mk I and Mk II guns produced there were still 3, on hand for the RN in The gun was primarily a high-velocity naval gun, with its heavy recoil suiting it to static mountings, an exception was made when the British Army were outgunned by the Boer artillery in South Africa and the Royal Navy was called on for help.

Their 10, yard range provided valuable fire support for the army throughout the war.

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They were known as long twelves to distinguish them from the BL pounder 6 cwt and QF pounder 8 cwt which had shorter barrels. He reported switching to percussion tubes for firing and recommended percussion for future field operations, perhaps uniquely, the guns were donated directly to Lord Roberts, the British commander in South Africa and became his personal property. They were known as the Elswick Battery and were manned by men from Elswick, the Elswick guns served throughout the war. There were of these employed in coast defence around the UK as at April Many of these were still in service in World War II although they had by then been superseded by more modern types such as twin QF6 pounder 10 cwt mounts.

In World War I a number of coast defence guns were modified and mounted on special wheeled traveling carriages to create an effective mobile anti-aircraft gun. UK shells weighed The electric primer in the cartridge could be replaced by an British escorts in vegreville which allowed the use of electric or percussion tube to be inserted to provide ignition, the Japanese Type 41 3-inch naval gun was a direct copy of the QF12 pounder. It was the secondary or tertiary armament on most Japanese warships built between andand was still in service as late as the Pacific War.

It was further re-designated in centimeters on 5 October as part of the process for the Imperial Japanese Navy to the metric system. Although finally classified as an 8cm gun the bore was unchanged at 7. QF 3-inch 20 cwt — The QF3 inch 20 cwt anti-aircraft gun became the standard anti-aircraft gun used in the home defence of the United Kingdom against German airships and bombers and on the Western Front in World War I. It was also common on British warships in World War I,20 cwt referred Ready for some erotic fun in corozal the weight of the barrel and breech, to differentiate it from other 3 inch guns.

The gun was based on a prewar Vickers naval 3-inch QF gun with modifications specified by the War Office in and these included the introduction of a vertical sliding breech-block to allow semi-automatic operation. When the gun recoiled and ran forward after firing, the motion also opened the breech, ejected the empty cartridge case and held the breech open ready to reload, when the gunner loaded the next round, the block closed and the gun fired. Routledge quotes a rate of fire of rounds per minute and this would appear to be the effective rate of fire found to be sustainable in action. This was faster and could track targets at mph at heights of 25, ft, the 3 inch 20 cwt gun was superseded by the QF3.

When war broke out and Germany occupied Belgium and North-east France, as a result, a search for suitable anti-aircraft guns began. The 3 inch 20 cwt with its powerful and stable in flight 16 lb shell and fairly high altitude was well suited to defending the United Kingdom against high-altitude Zeppelins and bombers. The 16 pound shell took 9. This means that the gun team had to calculate where the target would be 9 —18 seconds ahead, determine the deflection and set the fuze length, load, aim. British time fuzes, required for airburst shooting, were powder burning, however, the powder burning rate changed as air pressure reduced, making them erratic for the new vertical shooting 9.

QF 2-pounder naval gun — The 2-pounder gun, officially designated the QF 2-pounder and universally known as the pom-pom, was a millimetre British autocannon, used as an anti-aircraft gun by the Royal Navy. The name came from the sound that the original models make when firing. The first gun to be called a pom-pom was the 37 mm Nordenfelt-Maxim or QF 1-pounder introduced during the Second Boer War and it fired a shell one pound in weight accurately over a distance of 3, yd. The barrel was water-cooled, and the shells were belt-fed from a round fabric belt, the Boers used them against the British, who, seeing their utility, had the design copied by Vickers, who were already producing Maxim guns.

This was trialed in the Arethusa-class light cruisers HMS Arethusa and Undaunted, but did not enter service, being replaced instead by a larger weapon. It was a 40 mm calibre gun with a water-cooled barrel and it was ordered in by the Royal Navy as an anti-aircraft weapon for ships of cruiser size and below. The original models fired from hand-loaded fabric belts, although these were replaced by steel-link belts. This scaling-up process was not entirely successful, as it left the mechanism rather light, inone example of this weapon was experimentally mounted on the upper envelope of His Majestys Airship 23r.

Surviving weapons were out of storage to see service in World War II, mainly on board ships such as naval trawlers, Motor Boats. It was used almost exclusively in the single-barrel, unpowered pedestal mountings P Mark II except for a number of weapons on the mounting Mark XV. Length of bore,62 inches Rifling, Polygroove, plain section, The Royal Navy had identified the need for a rapid-firing, multi-barrelled close-range anti-aircraft weapon at an early stage. Design work for such a weapon began in based on the earlier Mark II, lack of funding led to a convoluted and drawn-out design and trials history, and it was not until that these weapons began to enter service Oerlikon 20 mm cannon — The Oerlikon 20 mm cannon is a series of autocannons, based on an original German 20 mm Becker design that appeared very early in World War I.

It was widely produced by Oerlikon Contraves and others, with various models employed by both Allied and Axis forces during World War II, and many still in use today. During World War I, the German Reinhold Becker developed a 20 mm caliber cannon and this used a 20x70 RB cartridge and had a cyclic rate of fire of rpm. Because the Treaty of Versailles banned further production of weapons in Germany. In the Oerlikon S was added to the product line. The purpose of development was to improve the performance of the gun as an anti-tank and anti-aircraft weapon. An improved version known as the 1S followed inthree sizes of gun with their different ammunition and barrel length, but very similar mechanisms, continued to be developed in parallel.

In Oerlikon reconsidered the application of its gun in aircraft and introduced the AF and AL, designed to be used in flexible mounts, the round box magazine used by earlier versions of the gun was replaced by drum magazine holding 15 or 30 rounds. Apart from changes to the design of the guns for wing-mounting and remote control, for the FF series drum sizes of 45,60,75 and rounds were available, but most users chose the round drum. The s were a period of global re-armament, and a number of foreign firms took licenses for the Oerlikon family of aircraft cannon Depth charge — A depth charge is an anti-submarine warfare weapon. It is intended to destroy a submarine by being dropped into the nearby and detonating, subjecting the target to a powerful.

Most depth charges use high explosive charges and a set to detonate the charge. Depth charges can be dropped by ships, patrol aircraft, Depth charges were developed during World War I, and were one of the first effective methods of attacking a submarine underwater. Depth charges have now largely replaced by anti-submarine homing torpedoes. A depth charge fitted with a warhead is known as a nuclear depth bomb. These were designed to be dropped from a plane or deployed by an anti-submarine missile from a surface ship, or another submarine. All nuclear anti-submarine weapons were withdrawn from service by the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Russia and they were replaced by conventional weapons whose accuracy and range had improved greatly as ASW technology improved.

The first attempt to fire charges against submerged targets was with aircraft bombs attached to lanyards which triggered them, a similar idea was a 16 lb guncotton charge in a lanyarded can.

Two of these together became known as the depth charge Type A. Problems with the lanyards tangling and failing to function led to the development of a chemical pellet trigger as the Type B and these were effective at a distance of around 20 ft. A Royal Navy Torpedo School report described a device intended for countermining, at Admiral John Jellicoes request, the standard Mark II mine was fitted with a hydrostatic pistol preset for 45 ft firing, to be launched from a stern platform. The first effective depth charge, the Type D, became available in January and it was a barrel-like casing containing a high explosive.

A hydrostatic pistol actuated by water pressure at a pre-selected depth detonated the charge, initial depth settings were 40 or 80 ft. Because production could not keep up with demand, anti-submarine vessels initially carried two depth charges, to be released from a chute at the stern of the ship Minesweeper — A minesweeper is a small naval warship designed to engage in minesweeping. Using various mechanisms intended to counter the threat posed by naval mines, although naval warfare has a long history, the earliest known usage of the British escorts in vegreville mine dates to the Ming dynasty.

Dedicated minesweepers, however, only appear in the record several centuries later, to the Crimean War. In the Crimean War, minesweepers consisted of British rowboats trailing grapnels to snag the mines, despite the use of mines in the American Civil War, there are no records of effective minesweeping being used. Officials in the Union Army attempted to create the first minesweeper but were plagued by flawed designs, minesweeping technology picked up in the Russo-Japanese War, using aging torpedo boats as minesweepers. In Britain, naval leaders recognized before the outbreak of World War I that the development of sea mines was a threat to the nations shipping, sir Arthur Wilson British escorts in vegreville the real threat of the time was blockade aided by mines and not invasion.

A Trawler Section of the Royal Navy Reserve became the predecessor of the mine sweeping forces with specially designed ships and these reserve Trawler Section fishermen and their trawlers were activated, supplied with mine gear, rifles, uniforms and pay as the first minesweepers. The dedicated, purpose-built minesweeper first appeared during World War I with the Flower-class minesweeping sloop, by the end of the War, naval mine technology had grown beyond the ability of minesweepers to detect and remove. Minesweeping made significant advancements during World War II, combatant nations quickly adapted ships to the task of minesweeping, including Australias 35 civilian ships that became Auxiliary Minesweepers.

Both Allied and Axis countries made heavy use of minesweepers throughout the war, historian Gordon Williamson wrote that Germanys minesweepers alone formed a massive proportion of its total strength, and are very much the unsung heroes of the Kriegsmarine. Naval mines remained a threat even after the war ended, after the Second World War, allied countries worked on new classes of minesweepers ranging from ton designs for clearing estuaries to ton oceangoing vessels. Navy had four minesweepers deployed to the Persian Gulf to address regional instabilities.

Minesweepers are equipped with mechanical or electrical devices, known as sweeps, mechanical sweeps are devices designed to cut the anchoring cables of moored mines, and preferably attach a tag to help the subsequent localization and neutralization. They are towed behind the minesweeper, and use a body to maintain the sweep at the desired depth. Influence sweeps are equipment, often towed, that emulate a particular ship signature, the most common such sweeps are magnetic and acoustic generators. There are two modes of operating an influence sweep, MSM and TSM, MSM sweeping is founded on intelligence on a given type of mine, and produces the output required for detonation of this mine.

If such intelligence is unavailable, the TSM sweeping instead reproduces the influence of the ship that is about to transit through the area. TSM sweeping thus clears mines directed at this ship without knowledge of the mines, however, mines directed at other ships might remain Inits title of Royal Canadian Navy was restored. The bill received assent on 4 May At the outbreak of the Second World War, the Navy had 11 combat vessels, officers and 1, men, during the Second World War, the Royal Canadian Navy expanded significantly, ultimately gaining responsibility for the entire Northwest Atlantic theatre of war.

During the Battle of the Atlantic, the RCN sank 31 U-boats and sank or captured 42 enemy surface vessels, the Navy lost 24 ships and 1, sailors in the war. In —41, the Royal Canadian Navy Reserves scheme for training yacht club members developed the first central registry system, from toduring the Korean War, Canadian destroyers maintained a presence off the Korean peninsula, engaging in shore bombardments and maritime interdiction. During the Cold War, the Navy developed a capability to counter the growing Soviet naval threat. This process was overseen by then—Defence Minister Paul Hellyer, the controversial merger resulted in the abolition of the Royal Canadian Navy as a separate legal entity.

The unification of the Canadian Forces in was the first time that a nation with a military combined its formerly separate naval, land. InCanada deployed three warships to support the Operation Friction, later in the decade, ships were deployed to patrol the Adriatic Sea during the Yugoslav Wars and the Kosovo War. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. Truro began searching along the presumed path of the torpedo, finding nothing. Aeas sank in four minutes, roughly 5 miles 8. Truro was nearly hit by the fleeing merchants and was forced to take evasive action.

Finding nothing, the corvette dropped four sets of depth charges. However, the German submarine had already moved on. Raccoon screened the corvette during the operation. After 30 minutes spent recovering the remaining crew of the merchant vessel, Arrowhead returned to position at the head of convoy and Raccoon took up position astern of the convoy on the port side. Q later reported seeing two columns of white water out in the Gulf of St. The aircraft ordered the merchant to rejoin the convoy. Not knowing where the convoy was, Q was sent to escort the merchant back to the convoy. Within 15 minutes of the torpedoing, all three merchants had sunk.

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